The definition of surzhik is followed by the combination “inappropriate surzhik” “poor surzhik”.

The definition of surzhik is followed by the combination “inappropriate surzhik” “poor surzhik”.

And the answers are confusing.

Andrew wiped the board. The board is not erased, but wiped.

A healthy guy, and offends the baby, but it is necessary: ​​the guy is big, and offends the baby.

My dad is a doctor. In the Ukrainian language, this word has two meanings: pope – bread, pope – the highest position in the Catholic Church. So, my father (father) is a pilot. Mom, give Dad a piece. Pope John was very wise.

There are many such examples.

I counted my tooth and came to school. In this case: I treated my tooth and came to school. And he counted notebooks, books, it is an equivalent synonym for the word “counted”.

We solved the problem correctly. And it is necessary: ​​we solved the problem correctly. And you can be friends correctly, you can love correctly.

Any notebook in a cage will be suitable for performance of this work. Not any notebook, but any. the word “beloved” does not exist in the literary Ukrainian language.

I study at a music school, and it is necessary: ​​I study at a music school. My brother went to college, and rightly so: my brother went to college.

I think that it is necessary to tell everyone about this act of a classmate. And it is necessary: ​​I consider that it is necessary to tell about this act of the classmate to all.

I, unfortunately, this error occurs often, and it is necessary: ​​at me, unfortunately, this error happens often.

Andriyko is an intelligent student, and it is necessary: ​​an intelligent, intelligent student. When we grow up, we will take exams for universities, and it is necessary: ​​when we grow up, we will take exams for universities. Maxim, prove your opinion, and it is necessary: ​​Maxim, prove your opinion. Turn the page, and you need to: turn the page.

I want to say a few words about the emphasis.

From TV screens to school, you can often hear:

“Together” and “together”

“Reading” and need “reading”

“On duty” and it is necessary “on duty”

“Kilometer” and need “kilometer”

“Centimeter” and need “centimeter”

“Millimeter” and need “millimeter”

“Product” and need “product”

“Sign” and need “sign”

“Subject” and need “subject”

“Case” and need “case”

“Task” and need “task”

“A few points” and need “a few points”

“Ballpoint pen” and “ballpoint pen”

“Money” and need “money”

“Which” and need “which”

“Errors” “errors” “on errors” and it is necessary “errors” “errors” “on errors”

“Bookmark” (in the book), and you need a “bookmark”

“Everything” and it is necessary “everything”

“Middle” and need “middle”

“Let’s go” and we need to “go”

“Easy” and need “easy”

“New” and need “new”.

Surzhik and the fight against it

Hundreds of years of slavery, during which the culture of academic lab report writing service the Ukrainian people was destroyed, decades of totalitarian rule, when everything was done to “merge nations” to create a universal language, caused the deformation of all spheres of life of the great European people …

Prolonged physical and spiritual violence against everything that concerned Ukrainians as a nation led to the alienation of the people from their own culture; traditions were interrupted, centuries-old norms were destroyed.

Language has been severely insulted, which is an integral feature of the nation, one of the most important factors in its self-expression and worldview, an important indicator of its viability and spirituality. The Ukrainian language was officially banned (decrees of Peter I, Valuev’s circular, Yemsky decree), declared invented by the Germans, considered a dialect of Russian or Polish, viewed as “peasant” and intended only for “domestic use”. She was deliberately humiliated, not allowed into the sphere of science, technology, factories, plants, the army, sports – in those areas that are important for the functioning and full life of the national organism. The totalitarian system absorbed the dignity of man, the nation. Carried out not only genocide. Not only famines but also physical destruction were planned. Regarding the Ukrainian language, a linguocyte was planned. Its microsystems faltered, its immune systems lost their stability. The language lost its natural quality, instead, a quality was formed that would demonstrate the “merger” of Ukrainians with the rest of the nations to turn them into a “Soviet” rivalry.

A kind of native language was created, which was called surzhik. The word “surzhik” has long been known in Ukraine. Surzhik was a mixture of grain – rye, wheat, barley, oats, as well as flour from such grains; it was not first-class grain and low-grade flour. The definition of surzhik was used to describe “surzhik” Undoubtedly, there are laws of development of contact languages, including Ukrainian and Russian. And when a person introduces into his speech words and phrases of another language, without destroying the grammatical basis, phonetic features of Ukrainian, preserves its beauty, uses its inexhaustible lexical and phraseological richness, such a process is natural and does not cause objections. , arbitrarily mixing the words of Ukrainian and Russian canceling words and combining them on the model of Russian, creating phrases contrary to the models of the native language, its native involuntarily becomes “semi-complete”. Shevchenko also rejected the fact that something floating on the surface of Russian literature – “Matrosh” “Parasha, our joy” which is almost subconsciously accepted and made his own by a Russified Ukrainian, warned against this. The highly educated Panko Kulish did not accept “perverted” words. Antonechko-Davidovych, Maksym Rylsky, Vasyl Sukhomlynsky and many other prominent figures of our culture spoke about the threat of language muteness.

A mixture of two languages ​​- Ukrainian and Russian – is spoken by part of the population of Ukraine, although it is generally accepted that using a mixture of two languages ​​is one of the most disturbing phenomena of a general pedagogical nature. Mutilated language dulls a person, reduces his thinking to a primitive. After all, language expresses not only thought. The word stimulates consciousness, subordinates it to itself, forms. Surzhik in Ukraine is dangerous and harmful because it parasitizes on the language. formed over the centuries, threatens to change the language, as accepted by Taras Shevchenko, showing the world its beauty and power, nurtured Ivan Franko, Lesya Ukrainka, Mykhailo Kotsyubynsky, writing it “indelible trace … independently between cultural languages.” Phonetic luxury, lexical and Phraseological richness, syntactic flexibility, and huge word-forming possibilities were universally recognized in 1934 in Paris at the world beauty contest, where Ukrainian took third place (French in the first place, and Persian in the second).

Language is an invaluable treasure of the people, the most complete chronicle of its spiritual life. In its depths there is a philosophical mind, a refined aesthetic taste, a lot of truly poetic sense, traces of the work of very concentrated thought, the power of extraordinary sensitivity to the subtle overflows in the phenomena of nature, a lot of the strictest logic, high spiritual ups and downs. To cultivate respect for the language you speak is, first of all, to respect yourself, to show respect for the people, their history and culture. It is to discipline thinking and the will to train memory. We have been working on these issues in primary school for many years. After all, we are convinced that love can be nurtured only by love, not just duty. Our television is a headache. Headache not only because it promotes not only violence, evil, sex in the most disgusting form, money as the pinnacle of dreams, but also because most – disrespect for the Ukrainian language. Advertising runs from morning till night, and in it in the Ukrainian text – “hot mug” “cottage cheese” “daughter”. And since children, unfortunately, sit on the TV a lot, these wordsin their minds. Therefore, we must say that not “mug” and “mug” is not “cottage cheese” but “cheese”.

Conclusions

So, the culture of the word is a matter for everyone who loves Ukraine. Throughout the difficult history, the Ukrainian people have created and nurtured their native language. The artists of the word polished every facet to elevate our language to the level of the most developed languages ​​in the world. But it will be able to remain on top only when we continue to protect it as the most valuable treasure, to keep its norms. We will make sure that a single nation has a single language. That is why the culture of speech should be taken seriously in primary school, because the culture of language is the culture of thought, it is the memory of our distant ancestors, it is something without which a nation cannot exist.

literature

1. Programs for secondary school 1-2; 3-4 classes. – K., 2003

2. Savchenko O. Didactics of primary school. – K., 1997.

3. Antonechko-Davidovich B. As we speak. – K, 1991.

4. Ponomarev O. Culture of speech. – K., 1999.

Author: V. Lukyanenko

10.09.2007

Game pedagogy. Technological aspect

Among the many different types of pedagogues working at the school now, the classroom system according to Comenius, the design system according to Dewey, the Waldorf system according to Steiner, the developmental system according to Elkonin-Davidov, there are also game pedagogy .. …

Historically, there are three types of pedagogical areas. They are determined by the type of content being broadcast and depend on what we want to get as the end result: the experience of the previous generation, the world of knowledge or the world of thought. Accordingly, there is now a division into model pedagogy, knowledge pedagogy and game pedagogy.

The pedagogy of the model is based on the introduction to the experience of the previous generation – the student copies the teacher – or the experience of the master. Pedagogy of knowledge is formed as a form of translation of experience in conditions of inaccessibility of samples. Their place is taken by: instructions, methods, system of knowledge. Game pedagogy is formed in a situation of mass training and shortage of samples, but the saturation of the “semiotic environment” of man.

Game pedagogy can include a sufficient variety of existing forms: different types of games (simulation, innovation, business, role-playing), debate technology, modeling, organizational-activity, organizational-mental games and more.

The essence of various games is to work out real problems and make related decisions on the example of given situations. The main feature is that the proposed problems do not have the right ready-made solutions. Options are developed and considered directly during the game, the course of which can be predicted, but there is always a share of improvisation. Many authors who deal with the problems of games say that now they can be considered as a new field of activity and scientific and technical knowledge, as a simulation experiment, as a form of role communication, as a method of learning, research and solving production problems.