Nonetheless, as many other elements of this play, the question about the relations between the individual and social guilt does not have an univocal answer

Nonetheless, as many other elements of this play, the question about the relations between the individual and social guilt does not have an univocal answer

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Jack expected the woman to pass him by, so he stamped his feet in a vain attempt to banish the sharp needles of cold creeping up through his hobnailed boots. He fanned a half dozen copies of the Daily Express over one arm, anticipating a taxi-cab screeching to a halt and a hand reaching out with the requisite coins. She smiled, and as she took the paper from him before turning to walk away, she replied, “Not half. It’s brass monkey weather; better get yourself a nice cuppa before too long.” (Winspear 47).

Throughout the novel, Maisie listened to her inner voice, which she learnt from Khan, a Buddhist monk, who additionally taught her the art of meditation. She was taught that silencing of one’s mind was important to listening to one’s inner voice. Therefore, while handling her detective cases, she sought for solutions through combination of wise practice and intuition.

The Major Themes

The prevailing theme in this novel is the theme describing the effects of the Great War. The period after the First World War was the time marked with social turmoil with arrising issues of labor, social class and colonialism (Korte 79). People were also transformed as the soldiers coming back from the war had to deal with their return from battle to their families who failed to understand them anymore. Her experience in 1st World War played an important role as her character as a nurse in France during the war established her connection utilizing the war. For example, she takes off her shoes, rubs her feet and realizes that her feet were cold, wet and filthy with the blood of France: “Feet that hadn’t felt warm in twelve years, since 1917 (Winspear 7).

Her work as a nurse also influenced her later life. Once she was summoned by Scotland Yard to speak with a girl suspected of a murder refusing to speak with anyone within the police department. Dobbs came and washed dirt off the girl’s feet, just as she used to do to the wounded soldiers in the war and the girl begun to speak to her.https://123helpme.me/how-to-restate-a-thesis-statement/ Dr. Blanche’s words of wisdom taught Maisie to be judicious about using her body to comfort another person. Also as she was able to gain trust of the young girl, she was able to gain trust of many others who saw her caring. Like a number of other women, she lost the man she was in love with in the war, and even though there were men who wished to date her, she refused and remained a spinster. Maisie could not feel the same way as she felt for her lover Simon Lynch, and although he failed to die physically in the war, his brain was injured badly, making him spend the rest of his days in a convalescent home outside London.

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Several gender-related and social changes occurred during this period. Before the war, women lived very restricted lives and had very few rights. Women who were not married had low social status as these people were treated as those who had did not perform their duties as wives and mothers. The war gave women an opportunity to prove themselves, which led to great changes within female population. Winspear in her novel is trying to recreate the events of this period, captured by the life of Maisie Dobbs in connection with the Great War. Winspear does what other classical novels failed to do by daring to introduce a well-educated and attractive single woman as the main character (Mattisson 2015).

Contrary to many writers, Maisie Dobbs mysteries give a historical account of this interwar period in Britain, which can be different from other writers that try to produce a fiction story distracting the reader from the true impacts of war (Moritz 92). She vividly explains the situation faced by wounded soldiers maintaining that the majority of them had gone to war expecting to come back as heroes only to end up as cripples or with altered personalities:

“Shame, isn’t it? That individuals only like our heroes out in the street when they are looking their best and their uniforms are ‘spit and polished,’ and not when they’re showing us the wounds they suffered on our behalf.” (Winspear 59).

The novel does not only educate the reader about the war but also explains the political and social situation in England during the 1930s. One of the more contributory factors is the level of unemployment that occurred as a consequence of Great Depression, which grew daily.

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Maisie’s assistant, Billy Beale, considers himself lucky to truly have a job as many of other people were unemployed. Billy lived in poor conditions along with his family in a small house in the East End London with another family of four. The description of their living environment that has neither water nor electricity gives a clear picture of the state of life and poverty (Winspear 137). When his daughter got sick with diphtheria, they failed to have money to take her to hospital which resulted in the death of the young girl. Jacqueline Winspear bases her stories on pieces of literature rather than just fiction unlike other classical writers. She plainly describes the role of women in bringing change to the society. The novel is thus focused on giving the modern reader a factual account of the historical period after the First World War.

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With the help of rational explanations Pollan singles out the ways we get food and the ways it really is produced. Thus, people buy it in a store or at a market or grow it themselves. With the purpose to demonstrate his credibility Pollan decides to cook four meals with products obtained in the three different ways and compare the taste, experience, and price, and, what is very important, to see to the bottom of each food chain and to learn everything about it in order to be able to make his food choice conscientiously. Pollan’s appeal of ethos creates emotions in the reader with detailed descriptions of meals, author’s feelings when consuming them, and with enumerating reasons behind the present state of affairs in the food industry.

As it was already mentioned, one of the lines of Pollan’s inquiries is the production of beef. For a more credible investigation Pollan buys a steer and raises it on an industrial farm, thus having a first-hand experience in the conditions of feeding, living, and slaughtering cattle. Pollan claims that we are not only what we eat but also what the food we eat is made of affects our bodies (84). Pollan bombards us with the revelation that basically people subsist on a monoculture diet of corn because it is in the basis of all modern technological processes. Not only pigs and poultry are fed on corn but also non-grain eaters such as cows and salmon. Pollan reveals that the explanation for such popularity of corn is first and foremost government assistance. Specific government policies resulted in overproduction that had to be used somehow. “Corn’s triumph” became “a disaster for individuals who grow it” as much as for those who eat the end product of farm factories. Not only does corn take its toll on animals’ health and environment but also it affects health of the people who consume these food animals. Pollan claims that “the fats created in the flesh of grass eaters are the best kind for us to eat” because they’re less saturated, fewer in number, and “may help reduce weight and steer clear of cancer” (267).123helpme accounts Additionally, milk, meat, and eggs from grass-fed animals contain omega-6 and omega-3 important for human being organism. The ration of those fatty acids is extremely important for human being health. Because of evolutionally unnatural diets of feedlot animals, now mainstream nutritional thinking that salmon is better for heart than beef because of higher levels of omega-3 not any longer takes hold. Pollan explains, “if the steer is fattened on grass and the salmon on grain, we might actually be better off eating the beef” and the reader can conclude that if both species are fed on corn, nutrition-wise it does not matter what to choose. The bottom line is, “The species of animal you eat may matter not as much as what the animal you’re eating has itself eaten” (Pollan 269).

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Pollan’s argument against so much corn in agriculture looks particularly strong if the reader learns that feeding cows a diet unnatural because of their species brings many troubles to animals’ health and environment. “The short, unhappy life of a corn-fed feedlot steer represents the ultimate triumph of industrial thinking within the logic of evolution” (Pollan 68). Cow manure was once a ideal fertilizer for fields and now it really is toxic waste because of corn and soy as their main meal option. If farmsteads used to keep cattle, poultry, pastures, and fields and it was a continuous cycle where animal feces fertilized the ground that later fed them, then now monoculture farming factories have to solve the problems of waste, animals’ fragile health, and sustainability. Nonetheless, critics argue that while Pollan “presents overstated case against science”, his result is “an argument layered with contradiction and distortion” and that his arguments look as if he is against science in general (Merberg). Merberg offers to “criticize science done badly but embrace good science as a vital part of a better food system.”

Pollan establishes a rapport with the audience from the first pages adopting friendly ‘we’ and posing rhetorical questions that every person asks themselves on a daily basis: “What am I eating? And where in the world did it come from?” (17). Providing startling statistics about growing rates of obesity in the USA Pollan mentions a paradoxical situation in those European countries whose approach to food choices is based on “such quaint and unscientific criteria as pleasure and tradition” and as a result their people are “healthier and happier in their eating than we are” (3). Thus, Pollan acknowledges that American people are now confused about what is healthy to eat because there was clearly time when fat was considered an absolute evil, while now carbs take the biggest share of the blame. The author tries to understand how we have been influenced by what we eat and how we eat.

Reading all the gory information regarding raising cows and steers and slaughtering them some may assume that the author has in mind a call to vegetarianism. Nonetheless, Pollan argues that, along with dairy, meat is certainly necessary for healthy lifestyle but it needs to come from correctly-fed animals. At that, Pollan claims that the label “organic” does not necessarily mean that animals are indeed free range and range-fed (134). Often organic farms are ,in fact, industrial farms which indeed do not use antibiotics and use less of chemical fertilizers but nevertheless their animals have never seen a blade of grass, have been fed on corn and for them “access to the outdoors” mostly means “not so much a lifestyle … as a two-week vacation option” (157). Yet still, there are small organic farms that make a small amount of produce, not on an industrial level, but which can be both healthy to eat and environmentally sustainable. Referring to beef, Pollan remarks that due to corn feed people got used to a year-round fresh beef in supermarkets while it was once a seasonal meat to be eaten in late fall and cold weather (253).

Telling in information regarding technological processes in farming Pollan cleverly remembers to mention what emotions they stir up in him. Thus, the author intertwines clinical facts and actual life situations he had concerning the issue, and the reader is more inclined to believe his arguments. Therefore, Pollan’s arguments are developed in a close connection with experts’ opinions, statistics, and personal experience. That image of a hands-on investigator who picks a steer to be raised for him and slaughters a pig along with his own hands dilutes the descriptions of technological, chemical and physical processes with a personal note, which helps the author to carry the reader’s attention. Also, Pollan lends a great deal of the book space to the mouth-watering descriptions of cooking processes, which make the reading all the more fun.

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Pollan arranges the chapters from the worst food choice (tasteless fast food) to the best (a scrumptious self-cooked Sunday dinner). The idea to place the detailed description of meals at the end of each chapter is fantastic because it is the best illustration of Pollan’s arguments involving all sensory mechanisms such as taste, smell, and touch. After visiting industrial and organic farms Pollan takes a journey to the wood to hunt boar for the meal he will make from scratch and see how it feels to procure food by himself. This meal turns to be the most satisfying in terms of taste and pleasure. Nonetheless, despite the clear evidence that the final meal is the best, Pollen says that it is impossible to get it every single day. Being a highly satisfying experience, it really is nevertheless extremely time consuming.

Despite the industry appropriating the word “efficient”, Pollen proves that, in fact, small farms are much more efficient because they sustain themselves and work in harmony with the nature. The point of view that it might be futile to fight against industrial giants who crash small-scale farmers making use of their low prices and big volumes is refuted by Pollen saying that nowadays it is very an easy task to “opt out” because of the Internet (248). Of course, not for each and every business; artisan broiler business is more artisan than cattle business since farmers are not allowed to process beef and pork themselves (250). In fact, beef business is more efficient in case a farm raises both cows and chickens because thus “the efficiency [is] represented by turning cow manure into chicken eggs and producing beef without chemicals” (214).

Some critics found Pollan’s arguments “too nice” claiming that they wants Pollan to be “more prescriptive about how we would realistically address our national eating disorder” (Kamp). Indeed, Pollan does not offer large-scale decisions on a governmental level. Nonetheless, if every person stays conscientious about their food choice, probably that would make a difference. Pollan offers us to approach the matter of food in a conscientious manner, not being obliged to always eat slowly and forsake fast food altogether, but be aware of what we eat.

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Contrasting two absolutely different types of meals in terms of price, time spent to consume and to prepare, pleasure derived from eating, and nutritional diversity, Pollen argues that both a fast food takeout and a slow Sunday meal made of self-gathered and self-produced foods are extremes which will be better experienced periodically. Indeed, the beef patty from McDonald’s cheeseburger Pollan found tasteless contrary to a braised leg of wild boar hunted by him. Nevertheless, he advocates to forsake processed foods and take out altogether. On a daily basis it is still good to use all conveniences of the civilization; it just should be done in full understanding of the fact that “we eat by the grace of nature, not industry, and what we’re eating is never anything more or not as much as the body of the world” (411). The ultimate goal of Michael Pollan in writing a book on omnivore’s dilemma is to raise awareness of what is the ingredient of what people eat: “You are what you eat” is a truism hard to argue with, and yet it really is, as a visit to a feedlot indicates, incomplete, for you are what what you eat eats, too. And what we are, or have become, is not only meat but # 2 corn and oil” (84). Claiming that people should look to the bottom end of the food chain, Pollan does not insist on a whole rejection of, for example, take out, rather he offers to treat it as “a form of Thanksgiving in reverse” to make sure that such bland food is not worthy to be consumed on a regular basis. A little bit of knowledge will help to drop next weekend not to the supermarket nearby but to the local farmer’s market for a fresh pound of grass-fed beef.

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Order Essay using this Title is a very complex and multidimensional text that analyzes many important issues, including the role of power, the limits of free will, etc. Nonetheless, critics and researchers do not pay enough attention to the concepts of guilt and shame in this ancient play. It occurs despite the fact that they play an extremely important role there. Sophocles exerts every effort to show how complex and deep these feelings may be and what enormous impact they can have on the human being psyche. In the author argues that the concept of individual guilt and shame are closely connected with social and legal aspects of the same emotions. He highlights that their psychological nature is a powerful driving force in almost every situation. Plagiarism Free Prices From only 12,99$/page

The connection between social and individual guilt

One of the central ideas of the play is the interrelations between the individual guilt and social suffering. The work starts with an episode where Oedipus is listening to the city’s representatives complaining about the disasters that have fallen upon their land. While describing the current affairs of the town, the priest, who was the leader of this delegation, says, “A blight is on our harvest in the ear, / A blight upon the grazing flocks and herds, / A blight on wives in travail” (Sophocles). The complete social system is suffering beginning from the crops till people themselves. Nonetheless, in the first episodes of the play, the cause of such disasters is not clear. Only when Oedipus sends a messenger to the Delphic shrine, he learns that the guilt is put onto the person who killed King Laius, the previous ruler of the city. Sophocles demonstrates that the whole city of Thebes is suffering because the murderer of the king has not been punished.

Disregarding the fact that Oedipus is the very man who should be blamed for such a situation, it is very important to analyze the following issue. It should be scrutinized how Sophocles sees and understands the relations between the guilt of one individual and the repercussions that his actions might have on the whole community. The priests of the Delphic shrine argue that the principal cause of these long-lasting spell of tragedies and disasters in Thebes is injustice. Sophocles writes about the amount of suffering that people go through, “Weaponless my spirit lies. / Earth her gracious fruits denies” (Sophocles). Therefore, it really is obvious that the scale of the crime does not match the depth of the catastrophe that Thebes suffers from. Someone kills another one; and, as a result, the whole city is on the edge of unbelievable crisis. Nevertheless, there is no evidence that Sophocles considers such punishment as wrong and inappropriate. It can be explained by two factors. At first, the ancient Greek society is a perfect example of the community where in actuality the ties between its individual members have become strong and meaningful. Therefore, for Sophocles, it really is absolutely normal that the guilt and shame of one particular individual can be transported onto the rest of the society. Moreover, this link isn’t only a single line from someone to the other one. In the guilt is disseminated onto a large number of community members. As Koper writes, “In the myth, the fearful transgression of a single individual is substituted for the universal onslaught of reciprocal violence. Oedipus is responsible for the ills that have befallen his people” (88).

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Nonetheless, as many other elements of this play, the question about the relations between the individual and social guilt does not have an univocal answer. As it has already been mentioned, the Delphic shrine said the following. The city was punished not for the actions of one particular individual, but for injustice. It’s not the fact of the murder that makes the gods punish Thebes. Nonetheless, it really is regarding the inability of the society to punish the murderer itself. When Oedipus learns the words of the Delphic shrine, he tells his people that he will make an effort to change the situation. He promises to punish the man who killed Laius, “I lay my ban / On the assassin whosoe’er he be. / Let no man in this land, whereof I hold / The sovereign rule, harbor or speak to him” (Sophocles). Therefore, the perfect solution is to the problem offered at the play remains within the frame of the Greek legal code. It offers rather distinct social implications.

Personal guilt and shame versus the crimes regulated by the law

the majority of the characters could have avoided the legal punishment. Nonetheless, they have chosen to murder or wound themselves while the adequate (from their perspective) personal punishment. Fosso argues, “Given all of the tragedy’s conflicting testimony and confusing facts, there was little to prove the hero unwittingly murdered his father and married his mother, in addition to his own self-conviction” (29). Sophocles repeatedly stresses that the option of escaping the tragic fate was, to a certain extent, possible. He writes, “Oblivion – what a blessing… for the mind to dwell a world away from pain”. In addition to simply leaving the city and settling his life somewhere else, Oedipus could have listened to Jocasta or Tiresias, the blind prophet. They wanted to hide the truth. Nonetheless, the hero decided to reveal it. Therefore, the primary stimulus to open the actual facts belongs to Oedipus himself. The same could be told about his decision to blind him. Jocasta’s choice also had nothing to do with the legal traditions or systems associated with the Greek society. It was her personal choice. The heroine was not able to live understanding that she was married to her own son who earlier had killed her husband and his father Laius.

In other words, nearly all the characters of the play think that personal shame and guilt certainly are a more punishment than the one implied by the current law. “Oedipus was defending himself when he committed parricide and his marriage to the Theban widow that led to incest was a way of consecrating the victory within the Sphinx, but, regardless,… he bears ‘objective’ guilt” (Sheehan 101). Oedipus’ defense against accusations is a tribute to the logical self. Nonetheless, his decision to plunge long golden pins from Jocasta’s dress into his eyes is a result of an extremely turbulent inner moral conflict powered by the feeling of shame and guilt.

Jocasta’s fate is probably more tragic and impressive. Oedipus was sure to get some punishment from the legal court or from the new ruler of Thebes. Nonetheless, no one told anything about Jocasta’s legal guilt. She was unlikely to be punished even by the ancient Greek society who had rather strict rules concerning the woman’s behavior. She was absolutely unaware of the fact that Oedipus was her son. Of course, she might have certain problems later in her life. Nonetheless, Sophocles does not give any direct evidence. Therefore, the only way to punish her was to take action independently without any outside help. Jocasta’s inner guilt was so strong that it demanded some logical final. She could not live with her shame. It served as the main destructive force in her fate.

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    The choices of Oedipus and Jocasta are deliberate and conscious. These people were obviously caused by a quantity of factors. Nonetheless, one of the most significant ones was inability of the society to match the legal punishment with the feelings that had tortured these characters after learning the truth. As a result, trying to substitute the social justice with their own one, Jocasta and Oedipus selected to murder and wound them. Here Sophocles draws strong parallels between the murder of Laius and the fate of Jocasta in addition to Oedipus. In all these cases, the law proved to be ineffective. Only the people could manage to find the truth and serve the justice, even if it was done in such a tragic and painful way. Segal also adds an extremely interesting perspective to this comparison by drawing the readers’ attention to the dialogue between Oedipus and Tiresias, where in actuality the prophet is trying “to persuade the accused of his guilt, not the jury” (126). The feelings of guilt and shame were more powerful than legal norms or even the disgrace from the community.

    The limits and nature of guilt and shame in the play

    The author of draws a very close connection between the concepts of guilt and shame. Klaassen even argues that in some cases the phrase should be rather interpreted as . Therefore, it deals more with shame than actually guilt. He writes, “Oedipus here speaks of his stain, not his guilt; a similar transference may be responsible for the preoccupation with Oedipus’ curse” (Klaassen 328). Later he adds that “the possibility of combining guilt, shame, and fate becomes reasonable” (Klaassen 328).

    For Sophocles, guilt and shame are endless and unavoidable. It really is obvious that the author does not think that the characters could simply forget their and start a new life, probably at the faraway place where no one knows them. The last line of the play is “Wait till free from pain and sorrow he has gained his final rest” (Sophocles). These words intensify the idea of immeasurable and endless guilt that will survive everything, except death. Therefore, the decision of Jocasta may seem quite reasonable in the frames of the Greek morality and logic, in general, and the work, in particular. In any case, the tragic steps made by these characters may be interpreted as attempts to take full control of the shame and guilt torturing them from inside.

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    In this way, these concepts access interested relations with the idea of free will being widely discussed in the play. In general, Oedipus the King proves that personal wishes of a human being actually do not matter much. The reason is that the fate is impossible to fool and the person will meet his destiny one way or another. Nonetheless, analyzing the theme of the suicide and self-blinding, readers see that it is the human being and not god’s wish. The person himself or herself has taken the tragic final decision to stop the circle of pain and misery. Although in the case of Oedipus, this deliverance is not complete, and the principle is the same.

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    Order Essay using this Title is a thought-provoking ancient drama that thoroughly explores the concepts of guilt and shame and their realization in the frames associated with the Greek society. Sophocles pays much attention to the analysis of strong links between the actions of an individual and their influence on the rest of the community. In this way, he argues that the guilt and shame of one person can sometimes be easily transported on everybody. The author also highlights that the maxims of both legal and personal feeling of guilt usually do not necessarily coincide. Sophocles also draws the attention of the audience to the fact that there are no distinct limits and time frames for guilt and shame. These ones can accompany anyone the whole life. Book Review

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    Summary

    In the book, the author starts out by explaining to the reader why listening does not come naturally to most people. Using the Flat Brain Theory, he states that the art of listening is a cooperation of three major organs, namely stomach, heart and head. Stomach contains feelings and emotions, heart considers possibilities with respect to what the talker is saying, and head performs logical functions involved in the situation, while also thinking about the presented issues. In this section, the author sets out to explain that people fail to listen because in most cases they let the stomach react to the talker by swelling with emotions and pushing the heart, which in turn flattens out the head and eliminates the capability of thinking and weighing the situation from logical perspective. The author here states this 1 needs to enable the emotions to be let out so that the person can continue along with his or her normal thought processes and logical functions.

    The second part of the book is approximately the art of listening, where in actuality the role and responsibility of a listener and a talker are laid out using gamelike features. Using this layout, it can be stated that the listener plays the role of moderator given that the problems being discussed do not concern them and neither are they required to provide a solution. The listener’s role in conversation is simply to listen, understand, and provide clear interpretation to the talker so that they can open their minds up to a possible solution. In order to do it, the listener must listen and understand the talker, while also thinking plainly to establish the direction that they are going to take while leading the talker into solution because of their issue.

    The author states that listening is not about judging, attacking, or blaming the talker for the predicament that they are in, but rather about being a safe haven, where they can share their problems and fears and seek interpretations for possible solutions. In one way or another, the author sets out the role that a listener must play in order to have a fruitful conversation with a talker. To accomplish it, they must be able to inspire trust in the talker so that they would feel comfortable enough to share with you the real details of their situation. The listener then has to pay attention to these details and ensure that they are fully aware of the circumstances in question, before they are able to finally interpret the problem and allow the talker to see it from a different perspective thus finding a treatment for it by themselves. The listener the following is not responsible for solving the problem but rather for understanding and providing the talker with an altogether new perspective so that they can find a solution for themselves.

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