Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Content up up on Television.Not all material that has been taped had been coded.
Composite week sampling designs have already been found in past analysis that is content to have representative types of tv development (Kunkel et al., 1999, 2001, 2003; Madden & Grube, 1994; Wallack, Grube, Madden, & Breed, 1990; Wilson et al., 1997). This sampling strategy involves arbitrarily picking times of the week or particular time slots for recording over weeks to lessen prospective bias that may be introduced if all taping had been done in just a calendar week that is single. Recording associated with test happened mainly over a 7-week period in the autumn every year. Because season premiere episodes are staggered through the thirty days of September, we began taping as soon as all nonsyndicated show had been showing episodes through the season that is current. Each week, three various times of the week had been randomly chosen for taping from all 11 channels, along with a week of this week represented 3 times within the test. The 8-hour time block for taping extended from 3:00 p xxxstreams.eu.m. (from which time many youth are away from college) to 11:00 p.m. (through prime- time). The entire process of recapturing missed episodes (like those which is why the satellite sign had been lost or even the show was pre-empted by displaying or other events that are special continued through the entire winter time.
Not totally all product that has been taped had been coded.
As our focus had been on scripted development, we excluded day-to-day news broadcasts, game shows, sports programs and occasions, and paid development, along with all kinds of commercials as well as other promotions ( ag e.g., teasers for community programs). Although music videos had been taped, these people were coded and analyzed individually because of the unique faculties and tend to be maybe maybe maybe not reported right right here. The analyses offered in this paper, nonetheless, do through the nonmusic video clip programming from cable music activity channels including talk programs, variety/comedy shows, and reality programs. In addition, implies that had been incomplete since they started before 3:00 p.m. or ended after 11:00 p.m. are not coded. Finally, episode repeats had been eradicated through the test.
The sample that is final the 2001-2002 season contains 1,276 unique system episodes, whereas the last test for the 2002-2003 period included 1,439 unique system episodes. The test for the second content analysis had been somewhat bigger than the very first year’s test once we produced concerted work in 12 months 2 to ensure we had three episodes of each and every nonsyndicated show. Despite strict adherence towards the sampling plan, extra taping had been required whenever, for instance, brand new programs entered the autumn lineup after the beginning of the year to replace for cancelled programs or if the time and time slot for a set ended up being changed.
The codebook for the bigger research had been based significantly in the factors manufactured by Kunkel and colleagues (1999, 2001, 2003) inside their content analyses conducted when it comes to Kaiser Family Foundation. We created additional products, including those on same-sex intimate behavior and sexual talk linked to nonheterosexuals. Contrary to Kunkel and peers, whom utilized the scene since the unit that is primary of, our content analyses involved coding for sexual content in 2-minute periods of system time. Because scenes differ significantly in total and, hence, try not to offer a consistent product of measure in making evaluations across programs, we utilized a coding that is standard according to time. Coding news development in designated time intervals has been utilized usually by other scientists conducting content analyses across different system genres including films, detergent operas, and music videos (Hazan, Lipton, & Glantz, 1994; Lowery, 1980; Roberts, Christenson, Henriksen, & Bandy, 2002; Roberts, Henriksen, & Christenson, 1999; Sommers-Flanagan, Sommers-Flanagan, & Davis, 1993; Stockwell & Glantz, 1997; Terre, Drabman, & Speer, 1991).
For purposes of the content analysis, intercourse ended up being understood to be any depiction of sex, intimately suggestive behavior, or any speak about sex or sexual intercourse. To be conservative and avoid overcoding sexual content, communications about intercourse were differentiated from nonsexual communications associated with relationship and relationships, that have been maybe maybe maybe not coded. As an example, a declaration such as вЂњI adore my boyfriendвЂќ would not be coded whereas a statement such as вЂњI made like to my boyfriendвЂќ will be coded.